About Hunan
Geographical Location

Geographical Location

Photo from the Hunan Provincial Department of Land and Resources


Hunan Province lies in south-central China between 24°38′- 30°08′N and 108°47′- 114°15′E and has an area of 211,800 square kilometers (81,776 square miles). It is adjacent to Jiangxi Province in the east, Chongqing Municipality and Guizhou Province in the west, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Autonomous Region in the south, and Hubei Province in the north.



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Sheltered by mountain ranges to the east, west and south, the center of Hunan comprises of hills and basins, and the north is composed of plains. The landform of the province therefore takes the form of a horseshoe, open to the north, low in the center, and high in the other three directions. Hunan's highest mountain Huping in Shimen County, Changde, reaches 2,009 meters above sea level, while its lowest area. Huanggai Town in Yueyang, lies at an altitude of only 21 meters.


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Hunan is located in the region with continental subtropical seasonal humid climate. It has four distinct seasons, abundant sun, long frostless periods and abundant rain. The total number of annual sunshine hours is between 1300 and 1800. The annual average temperature is between16C-18C. The frostless period is as long as 260-310 days. Annual rainfall is between 1200-1700 mm, which is favorable for the growth of agricultural crops and green plants.

The Monthly Average Temperature in Hunan Province

The Monthly Average Rainfall in Hunan Province


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Hunan is one of the most populous provinces in China. Covering 2.2 percent of China's territory area, its population amounts for about 5 percent of the country's total, ranking No.7 in China (2013). The average population density is 318 people per square kilometer. 
By the end of 2017, the population of permanent residents in Hunan reached 68.602 million, including 37.47 million urban residents with an urbanization rate of 54.62%, a year-on-year growth of 1.87 percentage points. The year of 2017 saw 908 thousand births, a birth rate of 13.27‰; 484 thousand deaths, a death rate of 7.08‰ and a natural population growth rate of 6.19‰. The number of population aged 0-15 (under the age of 16) accounted for 19.74% of that of permanent residents, a year-on-year increase of 0.03 percentage points; the number of population aged 16-59 (under the age of 60) occupied 62.1% of that of permanent residents, decreased by 0.58 percentage points; and the number of population aged over 60 took 18.16% of the total of permanent residents, up by 0.56 percentage points.
Chinese source: Statistical Communiqué for the 2017 Economic and Social Development of Hunan Province
Updated on June 27, 2018  

Natural Resources

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Hunan has an extensive network of rivers. To the north is the Dongting Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China. It has the largest reserve of natural water resources among the nine provinces of southern China. 
Its cultivated land, pastureland, and forests total 3.78 million ha., 6.37 million ha., and 10.3699 million ha., respectively forming approximately 3 percent, 1.6 percent and 6.6 percent of the country’s totals. The province has rich and varied land resources, favoring the development of its agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries. 
It is rich in both nonferrous and non-metallic minerals. A total of 141 minerals have been identified in the province; 60 of these represent deposits that place them among the country’s top ten mineral reserves, especially the nonferrous metals. Hunan’s abundant mineral reserves highlight its importance not only to the country but to the wider world. 
Hunan has rich resources of animals and plants with a wide coverage. Five rare surviving "living fossil" in the world are found in Hunan, namely: Cathaya Aargyrophylla, Met sequoia Glyptostrobodies, Glyptostrobus Pensilis, Gingko and Davidia Involucrate. 
There are around 5,000 types of seed plants, taking the seventh place across the country, over 2,000 kinds of woody plants, more than 1,000 types of wild economic plants, over 800 sorts of medicinal plants and 66 categories of rare wild plants under state protection. Grain crops are rich in category, with over 9,000 types of rice. Oil crops include camellia oleosa seed, seed of tung tree, rapeseed, sesame, sunflower, cottonseed and castor-oil plant. Economic crops are mainly cotton, ramie, jute (red jute) and tobacco. There are 100 types of medicinal plants like coptisroot and gastrodia elata and 88 sorts of agricultural and sideline products including citrus, tea, Hunan white lotus, day lily, water-soaked bamboo slice, lilium brownii var. viridulum, pearl barley and hot pepper. 
There are woody plants of 103 families, 478 genera and 2, 470 species. Hunan's forest area has reached 7.5,014 million hectares, with forest coverage of 51.4%, higher than the national and world level. 23 forest natural reserves have been established, and the first national forest park Zhangjiajie Forest Park is among them. 
The provincial grassland area covers 6.373 million hectares, among which available grassland reaches 5.666 million hectares. The grazing capacity achieves 7,040 thousand cattle unit. There are grassland plants of 137 families and 868 species, among which 775 species serve as the food of livestock. 
Hunan has a great variety of animals. There are 66 kinds of wild mammals, over 500 sorts of birds, 71 kinds of reptiles, 40 types of amphibians, more than 1,000 sorts of insects and over 200 kinds of aquatic animals. There are 18 categories of animals under the first-class state protection like south China tiger, clouded leopard, golden cat, whitecrane and white-flag dolphin, 28 sorts of animals included in the second-class such as macaque, stump-tailed macaque, pangolin, hellbender and cowfish, and 49 types of animals belonging to the third-class including egret, wild duck and bamboo partridge. As the well-known freshwater fish producing area in China, Hunan has over 160 types of natural fish, including carp, blackcarp, grass carp, bighead carp, silver carp, bream fish, crucian carp, gurnet, which mainly belong to the cyprinidae family. Famous species are Chinese sturgeon, Chinese paddlefish, silverfish, hilsa herring and eel. Regarding livestock and poultry, Ningxiang pig, Binhu buffalo, Xiangxi cattle, Xiangdong black goat, Wugang bronze goose, Linwu duck and Liuyang three buff chickens are the most well-known.
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The Provincial Flower - Lotus Flower

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The lotus flower has been planted in Hunan since ancient times, giving the province the fame: "land of lotus". The verse line "the land of lotus glowing in the morning sun"captured Mao Zedong’s praise and love for his hometown in his poem "Reply to a Friend".

The Provincial Bird - Leiothrix lutea

(Photo source: Changsha Online)

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Cities & Prefecture

Changsha City
Total area: 11,816 km2
Population: 7.9181 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Cranes, automobiles and tobacco
Major agricultural products: Grain, tea, fruit, livestock (pork, beef, lamb)
Major mines: Iron, manganese, vanadium, copper, lead
Total length of railways: 251 km
Total length of roads: 5,857 km
GDP: 1053.551 billion yuan (2017)
Sum of exports: 58.789 billion yuan (2017)
Sum of imports: 35.013 billion yuan (2017)
Inbound tourists: 1.292 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: 177.006 billion yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income of urban residents: 46,948 yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income of rural residents: 27,360 yuan (2017)
Fixed-asset investment: 756.777 billion yuan (2017)
Website (in English):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
As the capital city of Hunan province, Changsha now governs the six districts of Furong, Tianxin, Yuelu, Kaifu, Yuhua and Wangcheng and the two counties of Changsha and Ningxiang as well as the city of Liuyang. The city owns five national development zones including Changsha High-tech Zone, Changsha Economic Development Zone, Ningxiang Economic Development Zone, Liuyang Economic Development Zone and Wangcheng Economic Development Zone, and nine provincial zones including Jinxia Development Zone.
Changsha boasts a total area of 11,816 square kilometers, of which 1909.86 square kilometers are urban, and the city has a completed construction area of 320 square kilometers with an urbanization rate reaching 68.5%. In 2014, Changsha had 7.22 million residents, of whom 3.75 million were living in the urban area. By 2015, the number of residents had grown to 7.43 million.
The State-level Xiangjiang New Area, established in Changsha in April 2015, is expected to become a core "one belt and one joint" growth point. The city's location means it is a transitional belt between the eastern coastal areas and the central and western areas, while at the same time being a joint where the Yangtze River economic belt meets the coastal economic belt.
Changsha is located in the central hinterland, a bridge between north and south and a connection between east and west. It lies at the junction of the east-west axis of the Yangtze River and the Beijing-Guangzhou north-south axis which are part of the nation's "two vertical and three horizontal" urbanization pattern. It is therefore an important node in the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The Beijing-Guangzhou and Shanghai- Kunming high-speed rail lines meet here. It owns the fifth largest airport in China, the Huanghua Airport, making it an important comprehensive transportation hub.
Changsha has 55 higher education institutions, 97 independent research institutions, 52 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, 14 national engineering (technology) research centers, 15 national key (engineering) laboratories and 12 national enterprise technology centers. Changsha is also known in China and abroad for its scientific research achievements, including its hybrid rice breeding technology, Tianhe supercomputer, and 3D sintering printer, the first in China.
Changsha is a "historical city" well-known at home and abroad. The name of "Changsha" was first seen in the West Zhou Dynasty 3000 years ago. In later dynasties, Changsha was always an important city of Hunan and a key town in Southern China. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Changsha, as the capital city of Hunan province, was made one of the first group of 24 historical cities in China by the State Council of China. Since the 1970s, a large number of historical relics have been unearthed in the city, of which the West Han Tomb excavated in Mawangdui and the Inscribed Bamboo Slips of Sun Wu from the Three Kingdoms Period uncovered in Zoumalou have shocked the world.
Changsha is a "Cultural City" gathering great culture and professionals. It is a remarkable place producing outstanding people and brilliant minds. The world's cultural celebrity Qu Yuan, Han Dynasty outstanding politician Jia Yi and Tang Dynasty great poet Du Fu all "moved to Changsha" and left their masterpieces by the Xiangjiang River. The Song Dynasty's famous Confucian scholar Zhu Xi and Zhang Shi even held lectures at the thousand-year old Yuelu Academy and gradually formed the Huxiang Culture which had a far-reaching influence with the "statecraft ideology" as its core. "The elites were bred in Chu, and the best were gathering here." Since the mid-Qing Dynasty, such celebrities as Zeng Guofan and Zuo Zongtang have all studied at the Yuelu Academy.
Changsha is a "holy and revolutionary city" giving birth to a multitude of heroes. Changsha has a glorious tradition in revolution and is known as "the cradle of revolution" in China. In the modern Chinese history that featured big turmoil, talented people came forth in large numbers in Changsha. Such pioneers of the Revolution of 1911 as Huang Xing and Cai E, have all left their footprints of struggle in the City which also gave birth to a large number of proletarian revolutionaries and outstanding leaders shining in the annals of China, including Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi. All this has made the city one of the birthplaces of China's revolution.
Changsha is a "landscape city" full of beauty. The forest coverage of Changsha has reached 54.71 percent. It is a national ecological construction demonstration city and a national forest city.  The Yuelu Mountain looks like fire with its autumn maple trees. The Tianxin Pavilion offers a magnificent vista when looking far from it. The Xiangjiang water flows upward to the north, and the Orange Island lies restfully in the middle of a river. There is also the Dawei Mountain Forest Park and the Huitang Hot spring along with a number of celebrities' residences, all of which are either famous destinations of tourism or sightseeing, making Changsha one of the first group of excellent tourism cities by the State Council of China.
Zhuzhou City
Total area: 11,262 km2
Population: 4.0215 million (2017)
GDP: RMB ¥258.40 billion (2017)
Major industrial products: Railway transport, nonferrous metal smelting, basic chemical industry
Major agricultural products: Grain, pork
Major mines: Coal, iron, tungsten, tin, columbium
Total length of railways: 482 km
Sum of exports: US $ 1.66 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 530 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: 53.86 billion yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income of urban residents: 39,787 yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income of rural residents: 18,340 yuan (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Zhuzhou, located to the southeast of Changsha and bordering Jiangxi to the east, is the second largest city in Hunan Province and part of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiang City Cluster. The city has jurisdiction over 5 counties (Yanling, Chaling, Youxian, Liling, Zhuzhou) and four districts (Hetang, Lusong, Shifeng and Tianyuan), and covers an area of 11,262 sq km.The Xiangjiang River flows through Zhuzhou, which makes it one of the eight river ports of Hunan Province.
Aged-old history and culture: Emperor Yan, one ancestor of Chinese nationality, was buried in Yanling County. The Mausoleum of Emperor Yan is a famous place in China and has the famous name of "the First Mausoleum of China". Every year, a lot of people come here to worship the ancestor, large memorial ceremony is held periodically by provincial and municipal government and social group. Touring resource is abundant in Zhuzhou. Many scenic spots, such as Dajing, Jiubujiang, Taoyuandong, are comfortable places for people to visit and travel.
Rich industry and agriculture base: Zhuzhou locates in subtropical monsoon climate zone, so it has warm weather, abundant rainfall, long growing period of crops, and kinds of landforms. With abundant mineral and organic resource, Zhuzhou is one of the regions of high and stable agricultural yield in Hunan Province. In 1996, Zhuzhou became the first city whose rice output exceeding one ton per mu in China. The industry category is complete in Zhuzhou. It has been formed gradually that metallurgy, machinery, chemical and building materials industry are Zhuzhou's four pillar industries and electron, electric-power, coal, ceramics and other industries have been made Zhuzhou's new industry system. More than 50 China's firsts have come into being in succession, including China's first air-engine, first electric locomotive, first carbide alloy top hammer. Zhuzhou is really key industry base in Hunan Province and south China, of which industry output volume stands second place in 14 cities Hunan Province.
Superior geographic position and convenient traffic & transportation: Three bone railway lines (Beijing-Guangzhou, Zhejiang-Jiangxi and Hunan-Guizhou) cross here. Zhuzhou railway station is one of five special class passengers & goods transportation stations in China and the biggest goods transportation marshalling station in South China, with 110.5 couples of trainsans more than 30 thousand passengers pass here everyday. In Zhuzhou the highway transportation reaches out in all directions. Two national highways No.106 &320, expressway Beijing-Zhuhai, expressway Shanghai-Ruili which will be build according to national plan and "three south" highway communicating south Fujian, south Jiangxi and south Hunan province, all pass through the city. The Xiangjiang River passing the city is open to navigate for all seasons. From Yongli Wharf, which has a 1000-ton berth, container ships can sail directly into Dongting Lake and Shanghai. For air transportation, from Zhuzhou it is only 30 kilometers to Datuo airport and 65 kilometers to Huanghua international airport arrived in an hour through expressway.
Zhuzhou high-tech industry development zone stands in west Xiangjiang River, with an area of 35 square Km. It is a national-class high-tech industry development zone approved by State Council December 1992. In the zone, the base of exchanging & industrializing the achievements of new materials and national torch plan sensing technology industrialization base are built successively, two high-tech industry fields are established, and it has been formed that a new type industry developing pattern of "one zone, two fields & two base". By the end of 2000, there are more than 700 enterprises including 162 industry, 75 high-tech and 58 foreign investment enterprises. Four new high-tech industries have been formed which are new materials, light-machinery -electric power unification, electronic information and biological medicine industry.
Twenty years from opening-up, the foreign trade & economic of Zhuzhou develop quickly and gain large achievement. There are more than 130 enterprises that have own export rights. Zhuzhou is one of 33 comprehensive foreign trade base of export products. About 300 kinds of agricultural and industrial products are sold to more than 100 countries and regions in the world, including chemical industry, machinery, nonferrous metal smelting, building material, hemp products, fireworks, firecrackers and so on. From 1993, municipal export total sum is at the top of 14 cities Hunan Province. The open to the outside world is expanded and the investment environment is continuously optimized. Many famous company in the world, such as Simens (Germany), Yamaha (Japan), Pulatlahuteny (Canada), McDonald's and KFC have come to Zhuzhou succeddively to invest and develop and gain great return.
During the processing of development in new century, the municipal party commission and government is implementing the striding development strategy. We welcome from our hearts friends home and abroad come to Zhuzhou to visit, invest and develop. Let's build Zhuzhou's glorious future band in hand!
Source:Hunan Provincial Breau of Statistics
Xiangtan City
Total area: 5,015 km2
Population: 2.852 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Automobiles, iron and steel, electrical machinery, new materials
Major agricultural products: Paddy rice, pork, lotus seed, tea
Major mines: Coal, plaster
Total length of railways: 154 km
GDP: 205.58 billion yuan (2017)
Sum of exports: 10.58 billion yuan (2017)
Sum of imports: 7.88 billion yuan (2017)
Inbound tourists: 61.058 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: 56.19 billion yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income: 27,471 yuan (2017)
Forest coverage: 46.4% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Located in the east of central Hunan,Xiangtan is between the north latitude of 27°20'55"and 28°05'40", and the east longtitude of 111°58'and 113°05'.
With an area of 5015 square kilometers and a population of more than 2.852 million, it consists of two districts (Yuetang, Yuhu), two county-level cities (Xiangxiang, Shaoshan), and Xiangtan county.
Xiangtan City, an ancient city with a history of more than 1,500 years, is the hometown of Mao Zedong, the great leader of the Chinese people, and Qi Baishi, a world-famous master of Chinese painting.
Xiangtan is one of the major industrial cities in Hunan, with a number of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises, including the Xiangtan Iron and Steel Company, the Shaofeng Cement Group, and the Hunan Wire and Cable Group.
There are more than 80 tourist attractions in the vicinity. Peng Dehuai's birthplace in Wushi are well known to both Chinese and foreign tourists. The beautiful scenery in the Zhaoshan Scenic Area and the scenic area around the Shuifu Temple Reservoir have become big attractions for an increasing number of tourists.
The appearance of the city is changing every year. Its improved infrastructure network, consisting of well-paved roads, convenient transport, sufficient water, power and gas supplies, environmental protection, gardens and greenery, provides good conditions for investment. It also has many parks and street gardens.
Source: Xiangtan_Investment
Hengyang City
Total area: 15,310 km2
Population: 7.2053 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Transformer manufacturing, nonferrous metal smelting
Major agricultural products: Grain, cotton, oil plants, vegetables
Major mines: Coal, iron, lead, zinc, tungsten
Total length of railways: 392 km
GDP: RMB ¥ 313.248 billion (2017)
Sum of exports: RMB ¥16.819 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: RMB ¥ 13.454 billion  (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥56.805 billion  (2017)
Per capita disposable income of urban residents:RMB ¥ 31,300 (2017)
Per capita disposable income of rural residents: RMB ¥16,851 (2017)
Website (in English):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
It lies in the central south of Hunan. With an area of 15,310 square kilometers and a population of 7.2053 million, it consists of five districts (Yanfeng, Shigu, Zhuhui, Zhengxiang, Nanyue), two cities(Changning, Leiyang) and five counties (Hengnan, Hengyang, Hengshan, Hengdong, Qidong).
It has been called a "city of wild geese" since ancient times, as flocks of wild geese stay here for the winter after a long journey from the north. Within the city is Returning Goose Peak, a symbol of the "city of wild geese".
Hengyang is rich in historical relics and beautiful natural scenery. The memorial temple to Marquis Cai Yong of the Han Dynasty, the Shigu (stone drum) Academy of Classical Learning and the tablet to the legendary Emperor Yu have attracted visitors for thousands of years. Mount Heng, one of the "five sacred mountains" of China, is famous for its magnificent landscape and ancient temples.
Two major railways and two expressways run through this area. Three rivers are open to shipping of up to 1,000 dwt displacement to reach the Yangtze River and all coastal cities. The Huanghua International Airport in Changsha is about two hours’ drive from Hengyang. The city is one of the major producers of food grains, lean-meat pigs and cooking oil in China, and its agricultural production leads the country. Meanwhile, its process of industrialization is being accelerated. It is now China’s largest mining equipment manufacturer. It also produces small-bore steel tubes, processes beallon (an alloy of beryllium and copper), makes ultra-high-voltage transformers and manufactures fine chemicals. It is also the largest biological pharmaceuticals production center in south-central China.
Chinese source:
Yiyang City
Total area: 12,320 km2
Population: 4.3920 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Machinery manufacturing, foodstuff, electric power, chemistry
Major agricultural products: Grain, rapeseed, ramie fiber, tea
Major mines: Antimony, tungsten, vanadium, shale
Total length of railways: 142.05 km
GDP: RMB ¥166.541 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 548.96 million (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 241.03 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥ 23.58 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income: RMB ¥ 20,035  (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Yiyang City is known as a famous "hometown of rice and fish" in the Dongting Lake area. It is a major producer of food grains, cotton, oil-bearing crops, pigs and other industrial crops. Its ramie accounts for one fourth of the world's production. It is also one of the ten major bamboo-growing areas in China.
Its industrial products include ramie clothes, hot foodstuffs, cooking oil, bamboo sleeping mats, preserved duck eggs and antimony products, and sell well on both domestic and international markets. In addition, there are 25 high-tech projects in the Yiyang High-Tech Science Park, including the Zhongke Software Corporation, a bio-genetic engineering project, etc.
The local investment environment is being optimized. Improved infrastructure facilities, such as those involving energy, transport and telecommunications, provide better conditions for economic and social development.
Chinese source:
Changde City
Total area: 18,189.9 km2
Population: 6.059 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Cigarettes, textiles, electrolytic aluminum, machinery
Major agricultural products: Grain, cotton, oil plants, tea, aquatic products
Major mines: Gypsum ore, arsenic disulfide ore, shale
Total length of railways: 211 km
Total length of roads: 17,185 km
GDP: RMB ¥323.81 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 890 million (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 240 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥36.22 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income of urban residents: RMB¥28,735 yuan (2017)
Per capita disposable income of rural residents: RMB ¥13,847 (2017)
Forest coverage: 47.98% (2017)
Website (in English):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Changde City is a transport hub, an energy-production base, and cultural center in the northwest of the province. By the end of 2017, the population of permanent residents in Changde reached 6.059 million. Its large enterprises include the Changde Tobacco Plant and the Jinjian Rice Processing Plant. Aquatic products from Dongting Lake are also economically important.
With good infrastructure facilities, Changde has railways, an expressway, airport, water transportation, customs and commercial inspection facilities. It is also one of the major central cities receiving special attention from the provincial government. 
Changde has more than 300 places of tourism interest. The Peach Blossom Source is said to be the Chinese Shangri la or the ideal paradise of the ancient people in China. The Chengtoushan ruins in Lixian County date back 8,000 years. Jiashan Temple at Shimen is a 1,000-year-old Buddhist center and said to be the source of the Japanese tea ceremony. The tomb of Monk Fentianyu next to the temple has been ascertained by scholars of the history of the Ming Dynasty as the tomb of Li Zicheng, leader of a peasant uprising, who lived a secluded life as a monk after his failure to overthrow the dynasty. The 2,500 m long wall of poems in Changde set a Guinness record as the world’s longest tablet inscribed with poems. The UN Natural Wetland Protection Zone of west Dongting Lake and the Mount Huping National Nature Reserve both have natural charms.
Chinese source:
Yueyang City
Total area: 15,019 km2
Population: 5.7333 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Petrochemicals, electromechanical equipment, textiles
Major agricultural products: Grain, cotton, fishery, stock raising
Major mines: Gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, zinc
Total length of railways: 410 km
GDP: RMB ¥ 325.803 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 1.683 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 590 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥ 42.777 billion  (2017)
Per capita disposable income of urban residents: RMB¥30,009  (2017)
Per capita disposable income of rural residents: RMB ¥14,265  (2017)
Forest coverage: 45.31% (2017)
Website (in English):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Yueyang is a historical and cultural city nestled within the Yangtze River valley, referred to as a bright pearl besides Dongting Lake. It is located in Northeast Hunan and consists of four districts (Yuanyanglou, Junshan, Yunxi, Quyuan), two county-level cities (Linxiang, Miluo), four counties (Huarong, Yueyang, Pingjiang, Xiangyin), Yueyang Economic and Technological Development Zone and South Lake Scenic Area and Qu Yuan Administration Area , covering an area of 15,087 square kilometres with a population of 5.7333 million (2017).
The city has convenient transport. The railway between Beijing and Guangzhou, the expressway from Beijing to Zhuzhou and the No.107 national highway run from north to south through Yueyang. The Yangtze River flows through the city from west to east. The new Dongting lake bridge and the Yangtze River bridge at Jingzhou connect the city with the western part of Hubei Province and the eastern part of Chongqing Municipality. Chenglingji is the city's natural harbor on the river.
Yueyang is a newly rising industrial city, with the production of petrochemicals as its leading industry. There are now five other pillar industries in the city—feed grains, pharmaceuticals, textiles, building materials and paper making. 
It is also a 2,500-year-old cultural city. Its lovely scenery and cluster of places of historical interest draw large numbers of Chinese and overseas tourists every year.
Chinese source:

Shaoyang City
Total area: 20,876km2
Population: 7.3754 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Machinery, smelting, pharmaceuticals, light industry
Major agricultural products: Grain, livestock, dairy, traditional Chinese medicines
Major mines: Plaster, tungsten, lead-zinc, antimony, gold, silver
Total length of railways: 110 km
GDP: RMB¥169.15 billion yuan (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 1.587 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 108 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB¥33.217 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income:RMB¥ 16,353  (2017)
Forest coverage: 60.51% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Shaoyang, the gateway of the southwest, situated in the center of Hunan province, consists of eight counties(Xinshao, Shaodong, Shaoyang, Longhui, Dongkou, Xinning, Suining, Chengbu Miao Nationality Autonomous), one county-level city(Wugang City) and three urban districts(Shuangqing, Daxiang, Beita),with an area of 20,876 square kilometers ranking the second in Hunan and with a population of 7.3754 million ranking the first in Hunan. It has always been the important city of Hunan for 2500 years.
Chenzhou City
Total area: 19,400 km2
Population: 4.731 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Nonferrous metals, energy, building materials, foodstuff
Major agricultural products: Grain, tobacco, livestock
Major mines: Tungsten, molybdenum, tin, zinc, graphite
Total length of railways: 199 km
Total length of roads: 11,405 km
GDP: RMB¥233.773 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 2.11 billion (2017)
Sum of import: US $ 1.77 billion (2017)
Inbound tourists: 370,000 (2017)
Per capita disposable income:RMB¥ 21,527 (2017)
Forest coverage: 67.7% (2017)
Website (in English):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Chenzhou boasts a long history. The line-carved bone of late Paleolithic period discovered within the boundaries of Guiyang County indicated that, as early as more than 10,000 years ago, there were primitive people living on this land. It has a history of more than 2000 years originating from Qin Dynasty.
The character "chen" in Chinese means it is "the city in the forest". The character can be found in The Records of the Grand Historian (Chinese name: Shiji) written by Sima Qian (the father of Chinese historiography) in Han Dynasty (202 B.C.-220 A.D.). It recorded that Xiang Yu (a prominent military leader and political figure from the late Qin Dynasty in Chinese history) "made the Yidi Emperor move to Chenxian in Changsha ". Since then, the character "chen" began to appear impressively on paper, enjoying great popularity.
Chenzhou possesses history records originating from more than 2,000 years ago. In 221 B.C., the Emperor of Qin (Qin Shihuang) unified the then China. He divided the country into 36 counties and mapped out Guizhou County and Changsha County in Hunan Province, with Chenxian of Chenzhou under the jurisdiction of Changsha County. In Western Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – 9 A.D.), Changsha South County was set up as Guiyang County governing 11 counties; in Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589), Song (420-479) , Qi (479-502), and Liang (502-557) called it Guiyang Country, and Chen (557-589) Guiyang County. Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty (581-618) abandoned the name of Guiyang, and adopted the name of Chenzhou; Emperor Xuanzong of Tang dynasty (618-907) in 742 A.D. named it Guiyang County. In Song Dynasty (960-1279) it was called Chenzhou, and the armed force was set up here. In Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368) and Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), an administration was set up here. In Qing Dynasty (1636-1911) it was called Zhili Zhou (a directly governed administration). The administration of the Republic of China (1912-1949) turned it into a county. All previous dynasties set up administrations in Chenzhou.
Chenzhou enjoys unique geographical advantages. It is located in southeast Hunan Province, where the Nanling Cordillera and the Luoxiao Cordillera interlock and the Yangtze River system and the Pearl River system diverge. It's "pharynx and larynx" leading to the coastal South China from Central China since the ancient times. It is not only an important military site, but also a birthplace for men of letters. Ganzhou City of Jiangxi Province is to the east; Shaoguan City of Guangdong Province is to the south, Yongzhou City of Hunan Province is to the west; and Hengyang City as well as Zhuzhou City of Hunan Province are to the north. It is known as Hunan's South Gate.
Within the boundary, landforms are complex and diverse. It is characterized by massifs primarily, equal amount of hillocks and plains, and less water surface. The mountainous region area approximately composes nearly 3/4 of the city's total area. The topography of its southeast part is high while that of northwest part is low. The southeast area is the main body of the mountainous region. Knolls, hillocks, plains jointly form the topography of Chenzhou's northeast part.
At the end of 2017, the total population of Chenzhou reached 4.731 million. The urban population accounted for 53.8% and the rural population 46.2%. Presently it governs two districts (Beihu and Suxian), one city (Zixing), and eight counties (Guiyang, Yongxing, Yizhang, Jiahe, Linwu, Rucheng, Anren and Guidong) with a total area of 19,400 square kilometers, accounting for 9.2% of the total area of the province. Per capita land area is 0.211 hectares, which is 0.113 hectares more than the provincial average and ranking third within the province.
Chenzhou downtown, called Linyi in ancient times and located in central Chenzhou, was the administrative center in all previous dynasties. It is now also the city's political, economic, cultural, scientific, technological and educational center. In November 1959, Chenzhou Town under Chenxian County was identified as a county-level city. In 1963 it was changed back to a town and in 1977 it was recognized again as a county-level city. In 1995, Chenzhou established its prefecture-level city.
Chenzhou is located between 24°53 'N and 26°50 'N, featuring the humid subtropical climate. Because the north and south air currents are affected by the Nanling Cordillera's complex geographic conditions (landforms, soils, vegetations, and elevations), the four seasons are distinct here: spring early and changeable, summer hot and long, autumn clear and dry, and winter cold and short. The annual average temperature is 17.4℃, and the annual average precipitation is 1452.1 millimeters, which is 19.7 millimeters higher than that of the province, 2.22 times that of the nation, and 1.3 times that of the world’s continents. Thanks to its warm and moist climate, clear water, green hills and beautiful sceneries, it has always enjoyed a high reputation on environment. Just like the meaning of the Chinese character "chen", the forest and the urban area comprise a harmonious city.
Chenzhou was called the small "passageway of the Chu and Yue States (sovereign states in present-day central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn Period (722-481BC) and warring States Period (481-221BC))" in ancient time. At present it is facilitated with expressways and national highways running through from north to south, and first-class highways and provincial highways running through from east to west, forming transportation networks extending to all directions.
The national arteries of Beijing-Guangzhou multiple-track electric railway, the 106 and 107 National Highway run through the city in north-south direction, providing unimpeded channels for travelers. Trains stretch out towards north to Changsha City of Hunan Province, and south to Guangzhou City of Guangdong Province by departing in the morning and arriving at noon. Entering 21st century, Beijing-Zhuzhou expressway makes Chenzhou's transportation more convenient and even more powerful. The Provincial Highways 1806 and 1803 link east Jiangxi to west Guangxi, thus constitute a three-dimensional transportation network. By the end of 2001, the total length of the network reached 16,152 kilometers, with a village road covering rate of 99.19%, ranking first in the province. Among them, the length of the city's first-class highways amounted to 232 kilometers; 6 of 11 counties (cities, districts) had been covered by the first-class highways, leading in the province.
The covering rate of the telecommunication network soars in cities and countrysides, and electromagnetic wave transmission communicates through the municipality. Chenzhou has built a modern telecommunication network with large capacity, high velocity and wide extension, which contains telecommunication transmission exchange network, wide band network, multimedia synthetic information service network, the seventh information network, the digital synchronization network, the digital data network, central surveillance and monitoring network, and so on. The telecommunication optical cables cover Chenzhou's most villages and towns. The city's total capacity of the program controlled switch reaches 620,000; and the telephone master line household users amount to 462,000. Computer coverage amounts to more than 20,000, 20 times that in 1995. Chenzhou Mobile and Chenzhou Unicom have jointly built up the air-ground communication network in the city, able to provide mobile phone services for the local customers as well as some supporting services such as the voice mailbox, stored-card, mobile IP telephone, the short message service, the mobile internet service, mobile secretary, mobile information and news, 126/127/198/199 wireless service, 193 long-distance telephone calls, 165 internets, and so on. All these facilities have cooperatively formed three-dimensional wired and wireless communication networks.
Source:Official Website of Chenzhou Government
Loudi City
Total area: 8,117 km2
Population: 4.5361 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Agriculture and derivatives, nonferrous metal smelting
Major agricultural products: Rice, vegetable, oil plants, pork
Major mines: Coal, antimony, dolomite, marble
Total length of railways: 361 km
Total length of roads: 14717.5 km (2017)
GDP: RMB ¥154.498 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: RMB ¥ 2.042 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: RMB ¥6.136 billion  (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥25.138 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income:RMB ¥ 16,813 (2017)
Forest coverage: 50.25% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Loudi City is located in the central part of Hunan Province, having a population of 4.5361 million. It has 48 kinds of mineral resources, the reserves of all of which have been verified for production.
Its antimony reserve ranks first in the world, and the reserves of coal ,dolomite, limestone and marble rank first in the province. 
A sizable raw materials processing industry has been built. The local Lianyuan Iron and Steel Company is a backbone enterprise in Hunan.
The National Forest Park at Mount Daxiong (Big Bear) is the largest primitive secondary forest in southern China. The 5,400-m-long Boyue (wave and moon) Cave with a forest of stalagmites is rated a world wonder. The Meijiang scenic area, with steep peaks and mysterious caves, is another attraction.
The Hunan-Guizhou and Luoyang-Zhanjiang railways interconnect at the city. National highways Nos.320 and 207 run through the city area, and an expressway passes through it from east to west. Infrastructure facilities including telecommunications, energy supply and urban construction are being perfected. The city is expected to be a major transport hub and commercial product collection and distribution center in southern China in the not-too-distant future.
Chinese source:

Yongzhou City
Total area: 22,400 km2
Population: 5.4797 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Automobiles, electrical machinery, foodstuff, pharmaceuticals
Major agricultural products: Grain, tobacco, oil plants
Major mines: Manganese, tin, copper, antimony
Total length of railways: 357 km
GDP: RMB ¥172.846 billion (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 1.277 billion (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 80 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB ¥ 40.67 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income: RMB ¥18,371  (2017)
Forest coverage: 64.7% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Yongzhou City lies in southern Hunan, by the middle stretches of the Xiangjiang River. With an area of 22,400 square kilometers and a population of 5.4797 million, it consists of two districts (Zhishan, Lengshuitan) and nine counties (Dong'an, Qiyang, Shuangpai, Ningyuan, Xintian, Daoxian, Jiangyong, Jianghua Yao Nationality Autonomous, Lanshan).
Yongzhou City was called Lingling in ancient times. It was one of the three well-developed areas and one of the four ancient prefectures in Hunan. It was also the world’s original rice-growing area, the cradle of ceramics in China, and the source of China's Taoist culture. There are more than 1,700 cultural relics and historical sites in the area.
The area of Yongzhou adjoins Hunan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is the gateway to Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan Province and the vast areas of Southwest China, as well as to Hong Kong and Macao. The city has established trade, economic,and technical cooperative relations with Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan as well as the United States, Japan, Australia and 20 other countries.
Chinese source:
Huaihua City
Total area: 27,600 km2
Population: 4.9600 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Pharmaceuticals, timber, foodstuff, electrochemistry
Major agricultural products: Rice, fruits, medicinal material, oil plants
Major mines: Gold, copper, phosphorus
Total length of railways: 499.3 km
GDP: RMB¥150.397 billion  (2017)
Sum of exports: RMB¥544 million  (2017)
Sum of imports: RMB¥76 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB¥39.227 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income: RMB¥ 15,183  (2017)
Forest coverage: 70.83% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Huaihua City is situated in the southwest of Hunan Province.It is a new city, built in the 1970s along with the construction of the Hunan-Guizhou and the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou railways, having a population of 4.96 million.
Huaihua is the major transport hub in southwestern Hunan, with three railways running through the city area. It turned the city into a major economic radiation center linked to the peripheral areas of the neighboring provinces, Chongqing Municipality and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 2002, the Chinese State Planning and Development Commission and the Japanese International Cooperation Association (JICA) chose Huaihua as a case study for development strategy of medium-sized cities in the western regions of China. 
The city has a good ecological environment and a majestic landscape with many sites of historical interest. The newly discovered ancient trading town at Hongjiang is well preserved. Its marketplace, business names and offices are still clearly distinguishable, and it is of high archaeological value for the study of the history of economic and social development in western Hunan.
Chinese source:
Zhangjiajie City
Total area: 9,516 km2
Population: 1.5316 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Coal, nonferrous metals, agriculture and derivatives
Major agricultural products: Foodstuff, cotton, oil plants, vegetables
Major mines: Nickel, molybdenum, coal
Total highway mileage : 8998 km (2017)
Expressway mileage: 168 km (2017)
GDP: RMB¥54.24 billion (2017)
Sum of exports: RMB¥651 million  (2017)
Inbound tourists: 73.3581 million (2017)
Tourism revenue: RMB¥62.378 billion (2017)
Per capita disposable income: RMB¥15,033  (2017)
Forest coverage: 70.98% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Zhangjiajie City, located in the northwestern part of Hunan Province, has a population of 1.5316 million.
Zhangjiajie has a first-rate scenic area at Wulingyuan. Tourism is the city's main industry. The scenic area covers 369 sq km, and is famous for its over 3,000 grotesque quartz rocks. The rock peaks, bridges, caves, lakes and waterfalls have interwoven with each other to form a magnificent wonderland. The area has abundant animal and plant resources, and its forest cover accounts for more than 97%. Primitive forests (including secondary forests) are seen here and there.
Large numbers of wild animals live in these forests. The Wulingyuan Scenic Area was listed in the Directory of World Natural Heritages by the UNESCO in December 1992. In addition, there are Mount Tianmen (Heavenly Gate) and Mount Jiutian (Nine Heaven) Cave scenic places. Drifting on the Maoyan Stream is a popular tourist activity.
Zhangjiajie is also inhabited by more than 20 ethnic groups, including Tujia, Miao and Bai. The multiple cultures and different customs of the different ethnic groups are blended with each other. Ancient houses made of wood or bamboo supported on stilts, vigorous drum dances and melodious folk songs are among the prime tourist attractions here. The majestic landscape, the clear water, the fresh air and the pristine folk customs are major elements attracting Chinese and foreign visitors.
Chinese source:
Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Total area: 15,500 km2
Population: 2.6382 million (2017)
Major industrial products: Manganese-zinc processing, bio-pharmaceuticals, food stuff
Major agricultural products: Food, oil plants, poultry
Major mines: Manganese, zinc, vanadium, lead, phosphorus
Total length of railways: 130 km
GDP: RMB¥58.264 billion (2017)
Sum of exports: US $ 170.85 million (2017)
Sum of imports: US $ 26.65 million (2017)
Inbound tourists: 372,000 (2017)
Per capita disposable income:RMB¥13,949  (2017)
Forest coverage: 70.24% (2017)
Website (in Chinese):
Data Source: Hunan Provincial Statistics Bureau
Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture of Tujia and Miao Nationalities is the only autonomous prefecture for minority nationalities in Hunan. It is inhabited by people of the Tujia, Miao, Hui, Dong and Bai nationalities, who constitute 72% of the total population of 2.6382 million.
The autonomous prefecture is situated in the Wuling Mountain range. It not only has a beautiful landscape, but has also preserved large numbers of unique ethnic customs. It is now open to tourists from all parts of the country as well as the rest of the world. Its tourism trade is growing with each passing day.
The Xiangxi autonomous prefecture is the only region in Hunan Province that has been included in the state plan for the development of the western region on a large scale. It enjoys state preferential policies specially formulated for the development of the west. The people of Xiangxi are sure to seize this historical opportunity to accelerate its economic and social development.
Chinese source: