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15 July 2015

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Statistical Communiqué on Hunan’s Economic and Social Development in 2018

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In 2018, facing the complicated and ever-changing domestic and international economic environment and downward pressure, Hunan province, under the strong leadership of the CPC Hunan Provincial Committee and the People’s Government of Hunan Province, adhered to the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and implemented the spirits of the 19th CPC Congress, the Second and Third Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, and the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. It stuck to the general principle of seeking progress while maintaining a stable performance; benchmarked the requirements for high-quality development; made every effort to fight the three tough battles of preventing financial risks, reducing poverty and tackling pollution; and, carried forward the innovation-oriented opening up strategy. The provincial economy has maintained a generally steady and development trend, and has taken solid steps in high-quality development.
 
Ⅰ. General Outlook
Based on the preliminary calculations, the total GDP of Hunan was 3642.58 billion yuan, an increase of 7.8% over last year. Of the total, the added value of the primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry was 308.36 billion yuan, 1445.35 billion yuan, and 1888.87 billion yuan, showing an increase of 3.5%, 7.2%, and 9.2% respectively. Calculated in terms of permanent population, the per capita GDP was 52,949 yuan, up by 7.2%.
 
The proportion of the three industrial sectors was 8.5:39.7:51.8. The proportion of the tertiary industry went up by 2.3 percentage points. The industrial added value accounted for 32.7% of the regional GDP, making a year-on-year decline of 1.6%. The added value of high-tech sectors made up 23.2% of the regional GDP. The added value of non-public ownership sectors increased by 7.6%, accounting for 58.3% of the regional GDP. Strategic emerging industry made an added value increase of 10.1% and accounting for 9.3% of the regional GDP. The contribution rate of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industry was 4%, 40.9%, and 55.1% respectively. The added value of secondary industry and production service industry respectively contributed 36.3% and 19.4% to economic growth. The contribution rate of gross capital formation, final consumption expenditure, and net outflow of commodities and services to economic growth reached 45%, 56.9%, and -1.9% respectively.
 
 
Regionally, the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster’s GDP was 1579.63 billion yuan, growing by 8.3% over last year. Southern Hunan’s GDP increased by 8.2% to 724.36 billion yuan. Western Hunan’s GDP was 602.03 billion yuan, rising 7.8%. Dongting Lake area’s GDP reached 856.36 billion yuan, up by 8.2%.
 
Ⅱ. Agriculture
The added value of agriculture, forestry, husbandry, and fishery sectors hit 326.59 billion yuan, making a year-on-year increase of 3.7%. The added value of the four was 185.66 billion, 28.74 billion, 66.81 billion, and 27.15 billion yuan, growing by 3%, 9.5%, 0.9%, and 7.6% respectively.
 
Hunan’s sown area of grain was 4747.9 thousand hectares, decreasing 231.1 thousand hectares over the last year. Among them, sowing area for early season rice was 1238.2 thousand hectares, a decrease of 210 thousand hectares; for middle season rice was 1472.5 thousand hectares, an increase of 181.2 thousand hectares; and for late season rice was 1298.3 thousand hectares, a decrease of 200.9 thousand hectares. Grain production totaled 30.229 million tons, down 1.6% over the previous year. Among them, the output of summer and autumn season rice was 514000 tons and 22.16 million tons respectively, an increase of 5.8% and 1.7%. The output of early season rice decreased by 10.8% to 7.555 million tons.
 
 
Cotton planting covered an area of 63.9 thousand hectares, a decrease of 31.8 thousand hectares over previous year. The planting area of sugar crops reached 7.4 thousand hectares, increased 200 hectares. The planting area for oil-bearing crops was 1344.7 thousand hectares, growing 33.1 thousand hectares. Vegetable planting area was 1264.9 thousand hectares, rising 45.6 thousand hectares. Cotton output declined by 21.7% to 86 thousand tons; oil-bearing crops output grew by 3.7% to 2.344 million tons; flue-cured tobacco decreased by 8% to 188 thousand tons; and, tea and vegetable output rose by 8.9% and 4.1% to 215 thousand and 38.22 million tons respectively.
 
The total output of pork, beef, and mutton was 4.796 million tons in 2018, a decrease of 0.4% over the previous year. Among them, there are 4.468 million tons of pork, a decrease of 0.6%; 179 thousand tons of beef, an increase of 5.3%; and 149 thousand tons of mutton, a decrease of 0.3%. At the end of the year, the number of pig breeding stock was 38.22 million, a decrease of 3.7%; the number of pig fattening stock was 59.937 million, a decrease of 2%. The output of poultry and meat was 0.597 million tons, up by 0.8%; poultry and eggs was 1.054 million tons, grew by 2.1%; the milk output was 62,000 tons, increased by 2.5%; and, the aquatic products was 2.525 million tons, up 4.2%.
 
The newly increased effective irrigation area of farmland in 2018 reached 17.1 thousand hectares, with the water-saving irrigation area increased by 12.7 thousand hectares. A total of 72000 water conservancy projects came into operation with an investment of 26.5 billion yuan. There were 0.9 billion cubic meters of water conservancy earthwork constructed and 8086 km of roads in rural areas repaired and modernized.
 
Ⅲ. Industry and Construction
The added value of all industrial sectors totaled 1191.64 billion yuan, making an increase of 7.4% over last year. The added value of industrial enterprises above the designated size grew by 7.4%, with that of the non-public business increasing by 7.8%, accounting for 72.1% of the total. The added value of high processing industry and hi-tech manufacturing rose by 18.3% and 10.1%, accounting for 36.3% and 10.6% of that of the industrial enterprises above designated size. The added value of equipment manufacturing industry above designated size was up 11.9%, accounting for 29.4% of the total. And, that of the provincial-and-above industrial parks increased by 8.9%, accounting for 69.7% of that of the industrial enterprises above designated size. The added value of six high energy-consuming industries grew by 5.5%, accounting for 29.9% of the industrial enterprises above designated size which was 0.4 percent lower than last year. Regionally, the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster area made a 7.9% increase in added value, with southern Hunan increasing by 7.5%, western part increased by 7.3%, and the Dongting Lake area up 7.5%.
 
 
Among the products of enterprises above designated size, 54.2% made higher output than last year. The output of rice was 14.156 million tons, up by 4.8%; fodder increased by 3.3% to 15.772 million tons; crude processing volume hit 9.487 million tons, an increase of 23.3%; cement output totaled 109.206 million tons, a decline of 1.3%; steel was 23.747 million tons, growing by 7.3%; and ten non-ferrous metals output decreased by 12.5% to 1.668 million tons. There were 39000 concrete machinery products manufactured with 19.3% growth over last year. There were 691,000 cars produced, increasing by 1.7%. The electric energy production reached 141.88 billion kilowatt hours, up 6% over the last year.
 
Table 1: Output of Major Products of Industries Above the Designated Scale and the Growth Rates in 2018

Product

Unit

Output

Increase over 2017 (%)

Raw coal

10000 tons

1692.9

-3.2

Raw salt

10000 tons

323.2

4.9

Rice

10000 tons

1415.6

4.8

Fodder

10000 tons

1577.2

3.3

Refined edible vegetable oil

10000 tons

312.6

6.2

Cigarettes

100 million

1635.6

-2.5

Machine made paper and paperboard

10000 tons

348.3

-5.1

Crude processing

10000 tons

948.7

23.3

Sulfuric acid (100% equivalent)

10000 tons

176.7

-9.8

Caustic soda (100% equivalent)

10000 tons

44.8

4.6

Synthetic ammonia

10000 tons

54.8

1.7

Chemical fertilizers (100% equivalent)

10000 tons

54.4

-6.6

Cement

10000 tons

10920.6

-1.3

Crude iron

10000 tons

1963.2

9.7

Crude steel

10000 tons

2374.7

7.3

Ten non-ferrous metals

10000 tons

166.8

-12.5

Silver

tons

8176.7

3.9

Crane

10000 tons

130.3

104.3

Concrete machinery

10000

3.9

19.3

Moto vehicles

10000

69.1

1.7

Of which: cars

10000

30.8

18.8

         Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV)

10000

26.1

-10.6

         New energy vehicles

10000

9.5

110.0

Urban rail transit vehicles

1

1205

9.9

Power-generating equipment

10000 kilowatts

80.5

-39.3

Alternating-current motors

10000 kilowatts

1284.3

4.5

Potential transformers

10000 kilovolt-ampere

9245.7

9.4

Power generation

0.1 billion kilowatt hours

1418.8

6.0

Of which: Thermal power

0.1 billion kilowatt hours

912.5

16.1

          Hydro power

0.1 billion kilowatt hours

447.8

-11.4

 
The profit of industrial enterprises above designated size totaled 172.7 billion yuan, an increase of 9.3%. The state-owned enterprises made a total profit of 7.99 billion yuan, up by 26.8%; collectively-owned enterprises made 300 million yuan, down by 15.4%; stock cooperative enterprises 120 million yuan, down by 7.9%; joint-equity enterprises 142.73 billion yuan, up 13.7%; foreign-funded and Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan-investing enterprises made a gross profit of 15.84 billion yuan, up by 1%; and, other domestic enterprises gained profit of 5.72 billion yuan, increasing by 4.1%. Top five profitable industrial sectors were: the special equipment manufacturing, a profit of 17.29 billion yuan, growing by 49.4%; non-metallic minerals product, gaining a profit of 16.97 billion yuan, up by 37.5%; chemical raw materials and chemical products, with a profit of 15.2 billion yuan, up by 15.8%; agricultural and sideline food processing, a profit of 13.48 billion yuan, increasing by 5.1%; and, ferrous metal smelting and processing made a profit of 9.49 billion yuan, up by 42.8%. The cost of the main business income per 100 yuan of industrial enterprises above designated size was 83.2 yuan. At the end of the year, the asset-liability ratio of industrial enterprises above designated size was 51.5%.
 
The added value of construction industry was 254.98 billion yuan, making an increase of 5.8% over the last year. The profits made by construction enterprises qualified for general contracts and specialized contracts reached 27.43 billion yuan, growing by 8.8%. The housing construction areas totaled 592.533 million square meters, a rise of 8.5%, while the area of completed construction reached 199.294 million square meters, rising by 0.2%.
 
 
Ⅳ. Investment in Fixed Assets 
The provincial investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) increased by 10% over the previous year, of which, the non-government investment grew by 25.2%. Classified by types of economy, the investment in fixed assets of state-owned units was down by 8% while the non-state-owned units up by 20.9%. As for investment direction, the investments in the people’s livelihood, ecology, high-tech industry, and technical innovation up 7.8%, 12%, 51.1%, and 38.1% respectively; while that of infrastructure down by 10.1%.
Regionally, the investments in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster rose by 9.7%; the southern Hunan up 10.3%; the western Hunan increased by 10%; and, the Dongting Lake area seeing 10.6% growth.
 
The number of projects under construction across the province increased by 44.4% over the previous year. Of which, the newly-started projects grew by 43.5%; and, newly-operated up by 37.6%.
 
The investment in real estate development totaled 394.6 billion yuan, increasing by 15.2% over last year. Of the total, residential housing investment was 276.45 billion yuan, up by 26%. The commercial housing sales increased by 8.3% to 92.392 million square meters, up by 8.3%. The residential housing sales rose by 79.979 million square meters, rising by 8.5%. The sales value of commercial and residential housing reached 535.4 billion yuan and 437.74 billion yuan, increased by 20.0% and 22.6% respectively. The area of residential housing for sale totaled 17.205 million square meters at year-end, 2.95 million square meters less than last year, a decline of 14.6%.
 
Table 2: Fixed Assets Investment and Growth Rates by Sectors in 2018

Sector

Increase (%) over 2017

Fixed Assets Investment (Excluding Rural Households)

10.0

Primary Industry

22.7

Primary Industry

28.2

Of Which: Mining

31.2

Manufacturing

35.0

Electricity, Heat, Gas, and Water

14.4

Construction

-32.8

Tertiary Industry

1.7

Of Which: Transport, Storage, and Postal Service

9.3

Information Transmission, Software, and IT

0.3

Wholesale and Retail Trade

-33.9

Lodging and Catering

-2.6

Finance

33.0

Real Estate

8.6

Leasing and Business Service

43.6

Scientific Research and Technical Service

99.7

Water Conservancy, Environment, and Public Facilities Management

-14.1

Household Service, Maintenance, and Other Services

22.9

Education

19.9

Public Health and Social Work

16.7

Culture, Sports, and Entertainment

29.0

Public Management, Social Security, and Social Organization

-44.3


Ⅴ. Domestic Trade and Prices
Hunan’s total retail sales of consumer goods reached 1563.83 billion yuan, a growth of 10% over the previous year. In terms of location of business, the retail sales of consumer goods in urban areas stood at 1412.49 billion yuan, up by 9.9% and that in rural areas 151.34 billion yuan, up by 11.2%. As for consumption types, 1371.67 billion yuan were made in commodity retail sales and 192.16 billion yuan in catering, increasing by 9.9% and 10.7% respectively. In terms of regions, the total retail sales of consumer goods in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster, southern Hunan, western Hunan, and the Dongting Lake area was 649.86 billion yuan, 308.38 billion yuan, 275.9 billion yuan, and 329.68 billion yuan, a year-on-year growth of 9.9%, 10.4%, 10.2%, and 9.9% respectively.
 
Table 3: Retail Sales of Consumer Goods and Growth Rate in 2018

Item

Sales (100 million yuan)

Increase (%) over 2017

Total

15638.3

10.0

Classified by business location

 

 

Sales in urban areas

14124.9

9.9

          Sales in rural areas

1513.4

11.2

Total retail sales of the legal entities of wholesale and retail industry above designated size

4980.3

9.9

Of which:
Grain, oil, groceries

522.1

18.4

          Beverage

90.1

9.3

          Alcohol and tobacco

112.6

7.6

          Clothes, shoes, hats and textiles

322.8

7.0

          Cosmetics

62.6

13.7

          Jewelry

68.1

3.8

          Necessities

154.9

18.5

          Hardware and electrical materials

45.6

2.4

          Sports and entertainment

11.2

3.1

          Books, magazines and other publications

50.8

-18.5

          E-journals and audiovisual products

2.7

-16.7

          Household appliances and audiovisual equipment

320.1

8.6

          Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine

192.6

10.5

          Stationery

77.8

8.6

          Furniture

58.9

25.1

          Communication equipment

51.0

6.0

          Petroleum and related products

935.5

15.1

          Renovation and decoration materials

86.9

19.1

          Electromechanical products and equipment

50.3

0.6

          Vehicles

1629.4

6.1


The total retail sales of the legal entities of wholesale and retail industry above quota limit stood at 498.03 billion yuan, up by 9.9% over the previous year. Of the total, sales of commodities for culture, entertainment, sports, and health grew by 3.8%; and online retail sales increased by 43.3% to 162.4 billion yuan. The retail sales of grain, oil, and groceries increased by 18.4%, that of cosmetics grew by 13.7%, household appliances and audio-video equipment by 8.6%, furniture up by 25.1%, petroleum and related products by 15.1%,  renovation and decoration materials by 19.1%, and automobiles by 6.1%.
 
In 2018, the CPI (Consumer Price Index) in Hunan increased by 2% over the previous year. The CPI in urban and rural areas went up by 1.9% and 2% respectively. The retail price of commodities surged by 2.3%, and the factory gate price and purchase price grew by 3.2% and 3.5% respectively. Price of fixed assets investment went up by 4.8%. The producer price of agricultural products decreased by 4.6%, while the price for means of agricultural production rose by 2.7%.
 
Table 4: Extent of Price Movement Comparison of Consumer Price Index (CPI) Between 2018 and 2017

Item

Rising and falling   ration (%) over 2017

Price range by region (%)

Urban

Rural

CPI

2.0

1.9

2.0

Of which: food, tobacco, and alcohol

0.8

1.6

-0.7

      Clothing

1.9

1.9

2.0

      Housing

3.6

2.7

5.4

      Daily necessities and service

1.3

1.3

1.4

      Transportation and communication

2.8

2.7

3.0

      Education, culture and entertainment

1.5

1.5

1.5

      Health care

2.5

2.0

3.4

      Others

0.6

0.6

0.5

 
Ⅵ. Foreign Economic Relations
Hunan’s total import and export value was worth 307.95 billion yuan, representing a year-on-year increase of 26.5%. Of the total, the export value was 202.67 billion yuan, up by 29.5%, and the import value 105.28 billion yuan, up by 21.2%. In terms of types of trade, the export value of general trade reached 156.19 billion yuan, up by 38.7%, and that of processing trade totaled 45.02 billion yuan, up by 4.3%. Considering top 5 exported commodity categories, the export value of apparel and clothing accessories was 15.63 billion yuan, up by 57.4%; shoes increased by 22.1% to 8.46 billion yuan; steel went up by 41.9% to 7.64 billion yuan; ceramics grew by 69.1% to 6.74 billion yuan; and, bags and containers increased by 17.1% to 5.45 billion yuan. The exports by major countries (regions) to Hong Kong increased by 11.6% to 41.016 billion yuan; that to USA, EU, and the ASEAN countries increased by 28.1%, 29.1%, and 38.4% to 29.13 billion yuan, 26.32 billion yuan, and 30.33 billion yuan respectively.
 
Table 5: Total Import & Export Value and Growth Rates in 2018

Item

Absolute Amount of Volumes (100 million yuan)

Increase (%) over 2017

Total import & export value

3079.5

26.5

Export

2026.7

29.5

        Classified by trade types

 

 

        Of which: general trade

1561.9

38.7

              Processing trade

450.2

4.3

        Classified by main commodities

 

 

        Of which: mechanical & electrical products

874.6

18.9

              High-tech products

243.8

7.5

              Agricultural products

85.9

7.3

Import

1052.8

21.2

        Classified by trade types

 

 

        Of which: general trade

709.1

24.1

              Processing trade

299.5

11.3

        Classified by main commodities

 

 

        Of which: mechanical & electrical products

452.2

15.9

              High-tech products

240.7

50.0

              Agricultural products

98.9

56.4


The actual utilized foreign direct investment (FDI) in Hunan was 16.19 billion dollars, a year-on-year increase of 11.9%. FDI in the primary, secondary, and tertiary industry was 0.62 billion dollars, 8.09 billion dollars, and 7.48 billion dollars, up by 18%, 8.3%, and 15.4% respectively. Hunan introduced 118 foreign-funded projects with paid-in investment of over 30 million dollars for each. It also attracted 5 new investment projects of the Fortune 500 within the year. By the end of 2018, 173 enterprises of the Fortune 500 had invested in Hunan. Moreover, it attracted 600.21 billion yuan of actual investment from other provinces in China, up by 17.7%. Of the total, the investments in the primary, secondary, and tertiary industry were 41.46 billion yuan, 299.34 billion yuan, and 259.41 billion yuan, up by 2.7%, 15.9%, and 22.9% respectively. A total of 618 projects worth over two hundred million yuan were introduced from foreign countries and other provinces, an increase of 20.7%; the paid-in investment reached 223.35 billion yuan, up by 24.2%.
 
The value of new contracts on foreign projects, labor service cooperation, and design consultation signed by the province totaled 9.61 billion dollars, a year-on-year increase of 26.4%. The turnover of these projects totaled 8.47 billion dollars, up by 20.1%; and there were 132,000 expatriate labors, up by 21.4%. In 2018, the volume of foreign investment contracts was 1.82 billion dollars, down by 12%. Of the total, the agreed investment amount increased 10.1% to 1.59 billion dollars; and, the actual foreign investment up 23.3% to 1.67 billion dollars.
 
Ⅶ. Transportation, Post, Telecommunications, and Tourism
Hunan’s total converted turnover volume of passenger and freight traffic was 544.86 billion ton-km, a year-on-year increase of 1.8%. The turnover volume of freight traffic was 440.43 billion ton-km, a growth of 2%. Of the total, cargo transported via rail was 81.28 billion ton-km, basically the same as last year; and that by road was 311.49 billion ton-km, increasing by 4.2%. The total turnover volume of passenger traffic was 166.84 billion person-km, a decrease of 0.7%. Of the total, passengers traveling by rail increased 0.9% to 97.95 billion person-km, that by road declined 8.9% to 47.99 billion person-km, and that utilizing civil aviation reached 20.53 billion per-km, increasing by 14.7%.
 
The total highway mileage amounted to 240 thousand kilometers, 0.1% higher than that at the end of previous year. Among which, the expressway mileage increased 306.1 kilometers to 6724.6 kilometers. Railway mileage totaled 5021 kilometers, among which high-speed railway mileage reached 1729.6 kilometers. The total number of motor vehicles for civilian use reached 7.862 million, up by 14.1%, private-owned vehicles stood at 7.275 million, growing by 14.4%, and cars for civilian use numbered 4.301 million, up by 13.8%.
 
Table 6: Freight and Passenger Traffic by All Means of Transportation and Growth Rates in 2018

Item

Unit

Volume

Increase (%) over 2017

Total freight traffic

ten thousand tons

231110.1

2.0

Of which: railways

ten thousand tons

4467.8

6.7

Highways

ten thousand tons

204388.6

2.8

Waterways

ten thousand tons

21100.7

-6.5

Civil aviation

ten thousand tons

8.1

16.8

Pipelines

ten thousand tons

1145.0

13.8

Total passenger traffic

ten thousand persons

108083.2

-7.0

Of which: railways

ten thousand persons

13943.5

8.3

Highways

ten thousand persons

91007.1

-9.3

Waterways

ten thousand persons

1729.4

3.3

Civil aviation

ten thousand persons

1403.3

13.0


Of the total, post services was 24.82 billion yuan, an increase of 28.9%, and telecommunication services was 247.47 billion yuan, a growth of 166.5%. The year of 2018 also saw 6.484 million fixed telephone subscribers, decreasing by 3.9%. Mobile phone users numbered 63.029 million by the end of 2018, up by 10.9%. Internet broadband subscribers amounted to 16.353 million, a year-on-year increase of 24.3%.
 
The year of 2018 saw 750 million domestic tourist arrivals in Hunan, rising by 12.5% compared with that of 2017. The number of inbound trips to Hunan totaled 3.651 million, an increase of 13.1%. The overall revenue generated by tourism amounted to 835.57 billion yuan, an increase of 16.5%. Domestic tourism revenue reached 825.51 billion yuan, marking a 16.5% growth, while international tourism income increased by 17.4% to 1.52 billion dollars.
 
Ⅷ. Finance, Banking, and Insurance
Hunan’s total fiscal revenue reached 484.298 billion yuan, up by 6.05% compared with the previous year, and local fiscal revenue, totaling 286.068 billion yuan, increased by 3.73%. Of the total, tax revenue and non-tax revenue reached 195.957 billion yuan (an 11.39% increase) and 90.111 billion yuan (a 9.77% decrease) respectively. Tax revenue turned over to the central government reached 146.375 billion yuan (an increase of 7.13%), including 51.301 billion yuan income tax, a 17.17% increase. Hunan’s public budget expenditure totaled 747.922 billion yuan, up by 8.88%. The expenditures for social security and employment, urban and rural communities’ affairs, as well as science and technology were 110.647 billion yuan, 82.046 billion yuan and 12.97 billion yuan, up by 8.7%, 14.5% and 41.87% respectively. While the expenditure for housing security was 22.965 billion yuan, down by 7.76%.
 
Table 7: Total Public Revenue, Expenditure & Growth Rates in 2018

Item

Absolute Mount of Volumes (100 million yuan)

Increase (%) over 2017

Total public revenue

4842.98

6.05

Of which: local fiscal revenue

2860.68

3.73

Of which: tax revenue

1959.57

11.39

Nontax revenue

901.11

-9.77

Tax revenue turned over to the central government

1463.75

7.13

Income tax turned over to the central government

513.01

17.17

Total public expenditure

7479.22

8.88

Of which: total public service

821.20

9.93

Education

1189.47

6.65

Science & technology

129.70

41.87

Culture, sports & media

138.53

-6.92

Social security & employment

1106.47

8.70

Healthcare & family planning

631.71

7.80

Energy saving & environmental protection

193.99

11.95

Urban and rural communities affairs

820.46

14.50

Agriculture, forestry & water affairs

897.05

14.65

Housing security

229.65

-7.76


Savings deposits in RMB and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions totaled 4899.46 billion yuan at the end of the year, an increase of 4.8% compared with that at the end of the previous year. Of the total, savings deposit of households and non-financial enterprises were 2538.13 billion yuan and 1304.79 billion yuan, up 8.6% and down 5.7% respectively. By the end of the year, loans in RMB and foreign currencies in all items of financial institutions totaled 3646.05 billion yuan, up by 14.4%. Of the total, loans for households, and loans for non-financial enterprises, government agencies and organizations were 1313.13 billion yuan and 2322.23 billion yuan, up by 20.5% and 11.3% respectively.
 
Table 8: Savings Deposits, Loans & Increments in RMB and Foreign Currencies in All Financial Institutions at the End of 2018

Item

Year-end Figure (100 million yuan)

Increment over the beginning of 2017 (100 million yuan)

Savings Deposits

48994.6

2265.3

Of which: domestic deposits

48967.3

2262.9

     By households

25381.3

2006.7

           Current deposits

9623.2

384.9

           Fixed deposits and other deposits

15758.1

1621.7

       By non-financial enterprises

13047.9

-788.8

           Current deposits

7747.8

-930.7

           Fixed deposits and other deposits

5300.1

141.9

        By non-bank financial institutions

1852.4

329.9

     Overseas deposits

27.3

2.4

Loans

36460.5

4601.9

Of which: domestic loans

36360.9

4592.8

     By households

13131.3

2230.1

          Short-term loans

3111.4

461.4

          Medium and long-term loans

10019.9

1768.7

       By non-financial enterprises and government agencies and organizations

23222.3

2358.7

          Short-term loans

4899.2

393.6

          Medium and long-term loans

17340.4

1728.5

     Overseas loans

99.6

9.0


There were 105 domestic listed companies in Hunan Province by the end of 2018, including 4 newly-added ones. The direct financing of the province totaled 281.99 billion yuan, down by 18.1%. Of the total, 20.82 billion yuan was raised through issuing stocks and rationing shares. At the end of the year, there were 424 stock companies in the province with 5536.96 billion yuan trading volume. There were 3 futures companies in the area with 2982.2 billion yuan business volume.
 
The premium received by the insurance companies totaled 125.51 billion yuan in 2018, up by 6.7% over the previous year. Of the total, the premiums of life insurance, health insurance, accident insurance and property insurance were 67.68 billion yuan (a 6.7% increase), 18.92 billion yuan (an increase of 41%), 3.17 billion yuan (an increase of 15.5%) and 35.73 billion yuan (an increase of 13.7%) respectively. Meanwhile, insurance companies paid an indemnity worth 41.07 billion yuan, a growth of 9%.
 
Ⅸ. Education, Science and Technology
There were 109 regular institutions of higher learning at the end of the year. The number of postgraduates was 20 thousand, the number of graduates from university and specialized colleges associated with general higher education was 348 thousand, and that of graduates from secondary vocational schools was 205 thousand. The number of senior secondary school graduates, junior secondary school graduates and primary school graduates was 365 thousand, 725 thousand and 832 thousand respectively. Kindergartens accommodated 2.252 million children, a year-on-year decrease of 1.7%. Enrolment rate of school-age children in primary school hit 99.98% and the secondary gross enrollment rate was 92.5%. There were 2.961 million students enrolled in 13,306 non-government colleges and schools. 970 million yuan was offered as national scholarships and student grants for 556 thousand students of colleges and universities. 370 million yuan of state stipend was offered to 378 thousand students of secondary vocational schools. 1.31 billion yuan of tuition waivers was offered to 1.08 million students of secondary vocational schools, 8.97 billion yuan was allocated for compulsory education, and 460 million yuan as a state stipend for senior secondary schools.
 
Table 9: New Entrants, Enrollments, Graduates and Their Growth Rates in Schools at All Levels in 2018

Item

New Entrants

Enrollments

Graduates

Absolute Volume

Increase over 2017

Absolute Volume

Increase over 2017

Absolute Volume

Increase over 2017

(Ten thousand)

(percent)

(Ten thousand)

(percent)

(Ten thousand)

(percent)

Postgraduate Education

2.9

4.6

8.6

9.5

2.0

5.3

General Higher Education

41.6

6.3

132.7

4.2

34.8

4.5

Adult Higher Education

20.8

48.7

36.0

29.7

12.2

7.0

Secondary Vocational Education

22.9

-8.4

65.8

-4.1

20.5

4.9

Senior Secondary Education

40.7

2.2

117.5

2.5

36.5

6.0

Junior Secondary Education

84.3

6.5

240.5

4.7

72.5

-1.1

Primary Education

93.0

5.2

522.0

2.0

83.2

6.5

Special Education

0.7

15.8

3.7

17.2

0.5

54.1


There were 17 national and 206 provincial engineering research centers (laboratories) in Hunan by the end of 2018. There were 35 national-provincial joint engineering research centers (laboratories) set up; and 14 national engineering (technology) research centers and 342 engineering (technology) research centers at the provincial level established. There were 18 national key laboratories and 248 key laboratories at the provincial level as well as 53 national-recognized enterprise technology centers. A total of 6,044 technology transfer contracts were signed, representing 28.17 billion yuan in value. The number of registered scientific research results reached 664 among which, 18 won National Scientific and Technological Advancement Awards, 2 National Natural Science Awards. In 2018, a number of major innovations were made. The new products, “Kunlong 500” mining robot and “Hainiu” submarine deep hole core drilling rig, provide support for China’s “deep sea” exploration. The average yield per mu of super hybrid rice is up to a new high, and the salt-tolerant hybrid rice succeed in trial planting. The number of patent applications and authorized patents reached 94503 and 48957 respectively, increased by 23.9% and 29.1%. Of this total, 35414 patent applications for original inventions were accepted, up by 19.2%; and 8261 patents for such inventions were authorized, up by 4.5%. The number of patent applications for enterprises, universities and colleges, and scientific research institutes reached 51019, 16614 and 836 respectively, while the number of authorized patents were 27314, 7768 and 385. The value-added of new and high-technology industry was 846.81 billion yuan, up by 14%.
 
 
By the end of 2018, 1632 testing organizations for product inspection have been established in Hunan. Of which, there were 20 national product quality supervision and inspection centers, and 103 legal agencies for metrology verification. There were 1800 special equipment manufacturers and 346 thousand such facilities across the province. The qualification rate of key industrial products under quality random inspection was 92.2%. Hunan has involved in the development of 15 international standards and 47 national standards, and established 265 local standards. The departments of land and resources published 257 kinds of maps, witnessed 685 thousand visits to MAPWORLD, and offered 1.751 million fundamental geographic information data.
 
Ⅹ. Culture, Public Health and Sports
By the end of 2018, there were 534 art-performing groups, 143 mass art centers and culture centers, 140 public libraries, 120 museums and memorials, 14 radio broadcasting stations, and 15 television stations. Subscribers to cable television programs numbered 10.351 million households. Radio broadcasting and television broadcasting coverage rates were 99.02% and 99.64% respectively, up by 0.53 and 0.34 percentage points. There were 118 state-level intangible cultural heritage protection projects and 324 provincial level protection projects in the province. There were 10965 sorts of books, 253 types of magazines, and 82 types of newspapers were issued. A total of 430 million copies of books, 90 million copies of magazines and 850 million copies of newspapers issued.
 
By the end of 2018, there were 56238 medical and health institutions in the province, including 1552 hospitals, 137 maternal and child health-care institutions, 86 specialized epidemic disease prevention and control centers, 2208 township health centers, 781 community health service centers, 10377 clinics, and 39976 village clinics. There were a total of 437000 health workers, an increase of 5% over last year. Of the total, practicing doctors and assistant practicing doctors numbered 181000, up by 4.4%; registered nurses numbered 184000, up by 6.4%. The hospitals in the province possessed 348000 beds, up by 9.1% and township health centers 102000 beds, up by 1.2%.
 
The province carried out 5370 mass fitness programs with regular participants of 24.191 million. The number of administrative villages with newly-built sports fitness projects for farmers was 1100. In 2018, Hunan athletes won 8 world championships, 22 Asian championships and 67 national championships. There were altogether 113830 sports grounds and related buildings, including 317 stadiums, 7630 sports grounds, 691 swimming pools and 5270 all sorts of training rooms.
 
Ⅺ. Population, Living Conditions, and Social Security
By the end of 2018, the population of permanent residents in Hunan reached 68.988 million, including 38.647 million urban residents with an urbanization rate of 56.02%, a year-on-year growth of 1.4 percentage points. The year of 2018 saw 839 thousand births, a birth rate of 12.19‰; 487 thousand deaths, a death rate of 7.08‰ and a natural population growth rate of 5.11‰. The number of population aged 0-15 (under the age of 16) accounted for 20.78% of that of permanent residents, a year-on-year increase of 1.04 percentage points; the number of population aged 16-59 (under the age of 60) occupied 60.73% of that of permanent residents, decreased by 1.37 percentage points; and the number of population aged over 60 took 18.49% of the total of permanent residents, up by 0.33 percentage points.
 
Table 10: Permanent Population and Its Composition by the End of 2018

Item

Population by the End of 2017 (ten thousand)

Proportion (percent)

Permanent residents

6898.8

100

Of which: urban

3864.7

56.02

Rural

3034.1

43.98

Of which: male

3558.4

51.58

Female

3340.4

48.42

Of which: aged 0-15 (under the age of 16)

1433.9

20.78

Aged 16-59 (under the age of 60)

4189.3

60.73

Aged over 60

1275.6

18.49

Of which: aged 65 and above

878.5

12.73


In 2018, the annual per capita disposable income of population in the province was 25241 yuan, up by 9.3% or a real increase of 7.2% after deducting price factors, whose median was 20703 yuan, up 5.5%. The annual per capita disposable income of urban residents was 36698 yuan, up by 8.1% or a real increase of 6.1% after deducting price factors, whose median reached 33213 yuan, up 5.1%; the annual per capita disposable income of rural residents was 14093 yuan, up by 8.9% or a real increase of 6.8% after deducting price factors, and its median was 12701 yuan, an increase of 6.9%. The ratio of urban and rural residents’ income was reduced from 2.62:1 to 2.60:1. Regionally, the per capital disposable income in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) city cluster reached 39274 yuan, a year-on-year growth of 8.6%, 23391 yuan in southern Hunan area (an increase of 9%), 17288 yuan in western Hunan (10.3% growth) as well as 22928 yuan in Dongting Lake Ecological and Economic Zone, an increase of 9.2%. The annual per capita disposable income of rural residents in poverty-stricken areas was 10285 yuan, an increase of 11%. And the per capita monthly income of migrant workers was 4234 yuan, up 10.1%.
 
 
 
The per capita consumption expenditure of population in the province was 18808 yuan, up by 9.6% over the previous year, or a real increase of 7.5% after deducting price factors. The per capita consumption expenditure of urban residents was 25064 yuan, an increase of 8.2%, or a real increase of 6.2% after deducting price factors; and that of rural residents 12721 yuan, an increase of 10.3%, or a real increase of 8.1% after deducting price factors. The ratio of expenditure on food to the total consumption expenditure of households (Engel’s coefficient) was 28%, down by 1.2 percentage points over the previous year. It was 27.3% for urban households and 29.2% for rural households.
 
In 2018, a total number of 794.5 thousand new jobs were created in urban areas. The total number of migrant workers reached 9.589 million, up by 4.6% over last year. At the end of the year, the number of people participating in urban basic pension programs for staff and workers was 14.024 million, a year-on-year increase of 1.23 million. Of the total, 9.479 million were staff and workers, and 4.545 million were retirees. A total of 68.333 million people participated in urban basic health insurance programs, including 8.985 million urban staff and workers and 59349 million urban residents. A total of 5.82 million people participated in unemployment insurance programs, an increase of 182000 and a total of 7.934 million people participated in work accident insurance programs. The number of people participated in maternity insurance programs totaled 5.718 million. By the end of 2018, 130000 staff and workers received unemployment insurance benefits. The total expenditure of lowest subsistence allowances was 2.88 billion yuan for 597 thousand urban residents and 2.96 billion yuan for 1.268 million rural residents. At the end of 2018, adoption agencies of various kinds provided 330000 beds, adopting 174000 people. The province had 17135 various community service facilities, among which 7010 were comprehensive community service centers. A total of 9.17 billion yuan worth of social welfare lottery tickets was sold, raising 2.57 billion yuan for social welfare. Twelve key tasks for the people’s livelihood were successfully completed. In specific, 178400 rural decrepit houses and 280500 urban shantytown buildings were renovated, and 154 black and odor water bodies rectified.
 
Ⅻ. Resources, Environment and Work Safety
A total of 144 kinds of mineral deposits have been discovered in the province and 109 kinds of minerals with proved reserves explored, including 7 energy-related minerals, 39 metallic minerals, 61 nonmetallic minerals, and 2 liquid minerals. The number of geological exploration implementation projects (including continuing projects) totaled 139 and a total of 3 new mineral deposits of large or medium size were discovered. There were 14 national geological parks.
 
The air quality of 5 cities in the province has reached the second level. There was 94.5% of the water quality across sections of the province that met or exceeded the Class III standard, 0.9 percentage point higher than the previous year. A total of 170 natural reserves with an area of 1.478 million hectares were approved, including 23 national-level and 30 provincial-level natural reserves. The year 2018 witnessed the afforestation area of a total of 356000 hectares. There were 1.383 million hectares of hills cordoned off for afforestation and the stocking volume of living woods reached 570 million cubic meters; and the forest coverage was 59.82%.
 
Preliminary estimation indicated that the total energy consumption of above-scale industrial enterprises this year amounted to 61.571 million tons of standard coal equivalent, an increase of 3% over the last year. Of the total, the energy consumption of the top six high energy-consuming industries amounted to 50.361 million tons of standard coal equivalent, up by 6.7%. Major pollutants including emissions of chemical oxygen demands, sulfur dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and nitric oxide decreased by 4.17%, 9.83%, 3.43% and 10.22% respectively.
 
A total of 640 work-related accidents of various kinds happened during production or operation was reported in the province, and the death toll amounted to 654. The death toll from work accidents every 100 million yuan worth of GDP was 0.02 people, work accidents in industrial, mining, and commercial enterprises caused 1.17 deaths out of every 100 thousand employees, and the death toll for one million tons of coal produced in coalmines was 0.59 persons. This year witnessed 4723 traffic accidents, down by 16.6%. And the road traffic death toll per 10 thousand vehicles was 0.91 persons, a decline of 0.1 person per 10 thousand vehicles.
 
Chinese source: hunan.gov.cn